November 11, 2019
5G technology

WHAT IS 5G technology

By on June 19, 2019 0 394 Views

Historical

1. Introduction

We have been witnessing an exponential growth in the amount of traffic carried through mobile networks. According to the Cisco visual networking index, mobile data traffic has doubled during 2010–2011; extrapolating this trend for the rest of the decade shows that global mobile traffic will increase 1000x from 2010 to 2020.

The surge in mobile traffic is primarily driven by the proliferation of mobile devices and the accelerated adoption of data-hungry mobile devices – especially smart phones. Table below

provides a list of these devices along with their relative data consumptions. In addition to the increasing adoption rate of these high-end mobile devices, the other important factor associated with the tremendous mobile traffic growth is the increasing demand for advanced multi-media applications such as Ultrahigh Definition (UHD) and 3D video as well as augmented reality and immersive experience. Today, mobile video accounts for more than 50% of global mobile data traffic, which is anticipated to rise to two-thirds by 2018. Finally, social networking has become important for mobile users, introducing new consumption behavior and a considerable amount of mobile data traffic. Device Relative data usage
Feature phone 1x
Smart phone 24x
Handheld gaming console 60x
Tablet 122x
Laptop 515x The growth rate of mobile data traffic is much higher than the voice counterpart. Global mobile voice traffic was overtaken by mobile data traffic in 2009, and it is forecast that Voice over IP (VoIP) traffic will represent only 0.4% of all mobile data traffic by 2015. In 2013, the number of mobile subscriptions reached 6.8 billion, corresponding to a global penetration of
96%. The ever-growing global subscriber rate spurred on by the world population growth will place stringent new demands on potential 5G networks to cater for one billion new customers.

2. Historical Trend of Wireless Communications

A new generation of cellular system appears every 10 years or so, with the latest generation (4G) being introduced in 2011. Following this trend, the 5G cellular system is expected to be standardized and deployed by the early 2020s. The standardization of the new air interfaces for 5G is expected to gain momentum after the International Telecommunication Union Radio communication Sector’s (ITU-R) meeting at the next World Radio communication Conference (WRC), to be held in 2015.

Table below summarizes the rollout year as well as the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) requirements for the peak and the average data rates for different generations of the cellular system. Although IMT requirements for 5G are yet to be defined, the common consensus from academic researchers and industry is that in principle it should deliver a fibre like mobile Internet experience with peak rates of up to 10 Gbps in static/low mobility conditions, and 1 Gbps blanket coverage for highly mobile/cell edge users (with speeds of > 300 km/h).

Generation Rollout
year IMT requirement for data rate
Mobile users Stationary users 1G 1981 – –
2G 1992 – –
3G 2001 384 Kbps >2 Mbps
4G 2011 100 Mbps 1 Gbps
5G 2021 1 Gbps 10 Gbps

To understand where we want to be in terms of 5G, it is worthwhile to appreciate where it all started and to mark where we are now. The following provides a roadmap of the evolution towards 5G communications:

I. Before 1G (<1983): All the wireless communications were voice-centric and used analogue systems with single-side-band (SSB) modulation.

5G new Technology

II. 1G (1983–): All the wireless communications were voice-centric. In 1966, Bell Labs had made a decision to adopt analogue systems for a high-capacity mobile system, because at that time the digital radio systems were very expensive to manufacture. An analogue system with FM radios was chosen. In 1983, the US cellular system was named AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service). AMPS was called 1G at the time.III. 2G (1990–): During this period, all the wireless communications were voice-centric.
European GSM and North America IS-54 were digital systems using TDMA multiplexing.
Since AT&amp;T was divested in 1980, no research institute like Bell Labs could develop an outstanding 2G system as it did for the 1G system in North America. IS-54 was not a desire-able system and was abandoned. Then, GSM was named 2G at the time when 3G was defined by ITU in 1997. Thus, we could say that moving from 1G to 2G means migrating from the analogue system to the digital system.

IV. 2.5G (1995–): All the wireless communications are mainly for high-capacity voice with limited data service. The CDMA (code division multiple access) system using 1.25 MHz bandwidth was adopted in the United States. At the same time, European countries enhanced GSM to GPRS and EDGE systems.

V. 3G (1999–): In this generation, the wireless communications platform has voice and data capability. 3G is the first international standard system released from ITU, in contrast to previous generation systems. 3G exploits WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technology using 5 MHz bandwidth. It operates in both frequency divisions duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD) modes.VI. 4G (2013–): 4G is a high-speed data rate plus voice system. There are two 4G systems. The United States has developed the WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) system using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), evolving from WiFi. The other is the LTE system that was developed after WiMAX. The technology of LTE and that of WiMAX are very similar. The bandwidth of both systems is 20 MHz. The major cellular operators are favorable to LTE, and most countries around the
world have already started issuing licenses for 4G using current developed LTE systems.
The cost of licensing through auction is very high. Thus, we could say that migrating from 3G to 4G means a shift from low data rates for Internet to high-speed data rates for mobile video.

VII. 5G (2021–): 5G is still to be defined officially by standardization bodies. It will be a system of super high-capacity and ultra-high-speed data with new design requirements tailored towards energy elicited systems and reduced operational expenditure for operators.
In this context, 5G envisages not only one invented technology, but a technology ecosystem of wireless networks working in synergy to provide a seamless communication medium to the end user. Thus, we can say that moving from 4G to 5G means a shift in design paradigm from a single-discipline system to a multi-discipline system.

3G is the first international standard system released from ITU, in contrast to previous generation systems. 3G exploits WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) technology using 5 MHz bandwidth. It operates in both frequency divisions duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD) modes.

VI. 4G (2013–): 4G is a high-speed data rate plus voice system. There are two 4G systems. The United States has developed the WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) system using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), evolving from WiFi. The other is the LTE system that was developed after WiMAX. The technology of LTE and that of WiMAX are very similar. The bandwidth of both systems is 20 MHz. The major cellular operators are favorable to LTE, and most countries around the world have already started issuing licenses for 4G using current developed LTE systems.
The cost of licensing through auction is very high. Thus, we could say that migrating from 3G to 4G means a shift from low data rates for Internet to high-speed data rates for mobile video.

VII. 5G (2021–): 5G is still to be defined officially by standardization bodies. It will be a system of super high-capacity and ultra-high-speed data with new design requirements tailored towards energy elicited systems and reduced operational expenditure for operators.
In this context, 5G envisages not only one invented technology, but a technology ecosystem of wireless networks working in synergy to provide a seamless communication medium to the end user. Thus, we can say that moving from 4G to 5G means a shift in design paradigm from a single-discipline system to a multi-discipline system.

  IOT
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