Big Data technology for Smart Cities
Big Data technology for Smart Cities
The use of sensors, the increased participation of citizens in social networks and the generation of content are some of the reasons that have contributed to a considerable increase in the information available in the cities, further evidenced by figures that indicate that every day, 2.5 quintillion bytes are created, that is, 90% of the data in the world has been generated in the last 2 years, giving rise to the phenomenon known as Big Data.
Bearing in mind that cities are interrelated systems, large amounts of data are generated both by the government and by citizens, and these related data in a timeframe are converted into information, which applied in the solution of problems contributes to diminish uncertainty and improve livability and quality of life in cities. This is how Big Data, through the processes of integrating large volumes of data, analysis and predictions in real time, helps cities to improve their decision-making processes and their capacity to respond to the needs of citizens.
Smart Cities and Big Data
a. The Concept of Smart City
The concept of Smart City began to be used at the end of the 20th century with the aim of generating solutions for the problems of sustainability in the cities of the world and was further promoted by urban growth trends that predict that by 2050 about 70% of the world population will live in cities.
In recent years, the term has been linked to the use of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) as a means to promote economic growth and improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of different cities in harmony with the environment.
Of course a smart city is attractive for citizens, businessmen and workers since it offers a safer space, better services, job creation and reduction of inequalities through creative solutions.
According to the International Telecommunications Union “An intelligent and sustainable city is an innovative city that takes advantage of information and communication technologies (ICT) and other means to improve the quality of life, efficiency of operation and urban services and competitiveness, responding at the same time to the needs of present and future generations in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects”.
b. The Concept of Big Data for smart city
The term “Big Data” was first used in the world of computing by Roger Magoulas of the O’Reilly media in 2005, to define a large amount of data that traditional data management techniques cannot manage and process due to its great complexity and size.
Big Data is defined as a new generation of technologies and architectures designed to manage datasets whose size is beyond the capacity of the software tools commonly used to capture, manage and analyze this amount of data in a timely manner.
Than They are data generated from different sources ranging from Internet clicks, mobile transactions, commercial transactions, user generated content, social networks, as well as purposefully generated content through sensors or genetics, health care, management of engineering, financial and industrial Internet operations, making it increasingly an important tool used by organizations to create value, and also establishing itself as a key element in the development of solutions for smart cities.
c. Applications of Big Data for Smart City
The application of Big Data technologies for the smart city allows an efficient storage and processing of data to produce information that can improve different services of this. In addition, Big Data helps decision-makers plan any expansion or modification in services and resources, using the correct tools and methods for efficient and effective data analysis. Table below shows some applications in the Smart City.
Smart Grid : To integrate, analyze and use energy generation and consumption data in real time. as well as other types of environmental data, facilitating decision-making related to supply levels.
Smart Healthcare: Adequate analysis tools can allow health specialists to collect and analyze patient data, which can also be used by insurance agencies and administrative organizations
Transportation,Mobility, and Logistics: Patterns obtained from large amounts of traffic data can help improve transportation systems, minimizing traffic congestion by providing alternative routes and reducing the number of accidents by analyzing the history of setbacks, it can also help to reduce environmental impact and increasing security, as well as improving the user experience by decreasing the waste of the supply chain by associating deliveries and optimizing the shipping movement
Smart Safety: By providing detailed spatial and temporal geographic area maps one could easily determine the changes that may occur, it can also help to predict future environmental changes or natural disasters such as the detection of earthquakes that will give the opportunity to save lives and resources
Smart Governance: Government agencies with common interests can be easily identified through data analysis that can lead to collaboration among them, it also helps governments focus on the concerns of citizens related to health and social assistance, housing, education, the police, and other problems
d. Benefits of the Implementation of Big Data Technologies in the Smart City
In Smart City the use of Big Data technology has become a necessity, because it provides the capabilities to exploit existing information integrate the available data sources and perform data analytics through different tools that facilitate adaptation from the city to changes in the environment and the needs of those who intervene in it.
The main benefits of the use of Big Data in Smart City are the following:
Support in decision making: Data analysis allows identifying new strategies and better opportunities over time andthus plan the expansion of the service, resources and smart areas of the city.
Access to all types of information: It offers the potential to obtain valuable information from data collected through various sources.
Knowledge creation: It allows greater knowledge and control of the inter-action of the subsystems that are
part of the Smart City, increasing its efficiency and resolving possible threats in its long-term sustainability.
Integration for decision making:It promotes communication and collaboration between the different entities of the city:Government, public and private entities and citizenship in general
Improvement in management results: It leads to the reduction of costs and times in the provision of services, to the increase of productivity, as well as to improving the position of the city, organization, product or service, adding value to the installed infrastructure and improving performanceindicators